Dress for Success Fashion Show at Fort Washington Men's Shelter

By: Jay White

This year our Christmas Luncheon featured a Dress for Success Fashion Show. The goal was to help the men know the importance of appearance for interviews and for self-esteem. They borrowed suits from our “Suit for Success” closet of donated clothing and visited our on-site “Barbershop Plus” for haircuts. As they walked the runway, the men were able to share a little of their plans and hopes and how a good appearance makes them feel.

Dress for Success Fashion Show at Fort Washington Men's Shelter
Dress for Success Fashion Show at Fort Washington Men's Shelter

See someone in need of help?

Street Outreach in 1970's (3)

NYC Department of Homeless Services

Call 311 for:

  • Information on accessing shelter services including directions to family and single adult intake centers, or
  • Mobile street outreach services to request that an outreach team visit an individual in need
  • Locate adult drop-in centers, including 24-hour drop-In centers and those open from 7:30am-8:30pm

Hunger Hotline

(866) 888-8777

  • For a nearby meal or food pantry

Human Resources Administration InfoLine

(718) 557-1399

  • Food Stamps and emergency food programs
  • Public health insurance (Medicaid)
  • Temporary cash assistance and benefits
  • Domestic Violence Support

Project Renewal Progams

Medical Detox (8 East 3rd Street, 2nd Floor)

(212) 533-8400 x360

Crisis Center (8 East 3rd Street, 4th Floor)

(212) 763-0596

Recovery Center Outpatient Counseling

(212) 533-8400 x361

Next Step Employment Program

(646) 581-4433

Culinary Arts Training Program

(212) 533-8400 x130

ScanVan Women’s Health Screenings

(631) 581-4171

  • Provides free mammograms to low-income women without health insurance, also accepts health insurance
  • View Schedule Here

Is Housing First the Answer?

In Homes Now Holiday Cookie Decorating Party

In Homes Now is the first supportive housing project specifically designed for homeless people who are active users of drugs and/or alcohol. This year we break ground on 56 new apartments to expand this pioneering client-centered approach.

Called “Housing First,” our model program launched in 2003 at a time when there were no such housing options for homeless individuals with active substance use issues, who did not also have a serious mental illness or HIV/AIDS. Our housing first model works - 80% of our residents have successfully remained in housing for 3 years and 95% have a stable income.

This spring we will break ground on a new residence with 57 studio apartments on Villa Avenue in the Bronx, expanding the program to reach even more men and women who are shut out of traditional housing options. 

We will also expand out scattered-site apartment program to include 10 family units for the first time. This effort will support families where the head of the household is graduating from recovery (substance abuse). This innovative adaption of the program will include partnerships with scores of agencies in the community that are currently helping children and parents stay healthy and strong.

To learn more about Housing First and our success with the model, you can click here to download a report from CASA, the National Center for Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University.

Here is an excerpt:

Yet despite growing national attention and its federal endorsement, Housing First models continued to represent a small subset of New York City’s supportive housing. The Housing First models that did exist were limited to individuals with serious mental illness (e.g. Pathways to Housing) or persons living with HIV/AIDS (e.g. Housing Works or Bailey House), and the Housing First model remained out of reach for the sizeable number of homeless individuals with addiction issues who had neither a serious mental illness nor HIV/AIDS.

It was not until 2003 that New York City would obtain its first Housing First supportive housing program for homeless individuals with active substance use issues, who did not have a serious mental illness or HIV/AIDS. In that year, Project Renewal, a provider of comprehensive services for homeless individuals, received a grant through the federal Collaborative Initiative to End Chronic Homelessness demonstration program, and used it to create 60 units of scattered-site supportive housing for individuals identified as chronically homeless who had active addiction issues. This program, In Homes Now, was New York City’s first Housing First supportive housing project specifically targeted at homeless people who were active users of drugs and/or alcohol.

The program was later incorporated into and expanded through the NY/NY III’s supportive housing for Population E.

HOPE Housing First Impl Focus p16

Board Voice: Q&A With Dr. Jules Ranz, Clinical Professor of Psychiatry at the Columbia University Medical Center

Project Renewal Trustee Jules Ranz recognized for excellence in psychiatric training

I spoke to trustee Jules Ranz to catch up about his work as the Director of the Public Psychiatry Fellowship at Columbia University Medical Center and how that works with his role as a Project Renewal Trustee (a position he has held since 1995). Turns out he was just endorsed by the American Psychiatric Association for contributions to field of psychiatry:

“I’ve spent my entire career in the public sector, the last 30 years as Director of the Public Psychiatry Fellowship at Columbia.  My mentor at the time was Dr. Christian Beels, a trustee at Project Renewal.  He encouraged me to join the Board.  It’s the only board I’ve served on, and I have valued my board service for several reasons.

The Public Psychiatry Fellowship is the largest training fellowship in the country and until about 10 years ago, it was the only one.  We train 10 Fellows a year to prepare for psychiatric service in the public sector.  With more psychiatrists going to work in organizational settings than to a private practice, there is a growing need for this specialized training.  The Fellows we accept have already completed 4 years of medical school followed by 4 years of residency.  The Fellows spend a year with us in classwork and field work integrating theory and practice.  The field work is a 3 day a week placement in a community organization like Project Renewal.  The goal is to use the agency as a training site with the hope that the Fellow gets hired at the site at the end.  This happens about 60-70% of the time. 

Project Renewal takes a Fellow just about every year and most Fellows who stay in New York City stay on at Project Renewal as a staff member.  So most of the psychiatrists at Project Renewal have been trained by us!  And, all three Medical Directors for Psychiatry came through the Fellowship (Hunter McQuistion, Elizabeth Oudens, and now Allison Grolnick.)  I take a lot of pride in helping Project Renewal create a cadre of effective psychiatrists dedicated to helping homeless men and women.

Project Renewal is a leader in New York City in providing the most comprehensive services for homeless New Yorkers.  It excels in providing the entire package – recovery, medical, dental, psychiatry, employment, and housing.  I feel deeply connected to Project Renewal’s mission and to its success.  I bring a clinical background and expertise in public psychiatry to the Board.  In return, Project Renewal’s Program Directors are frequent presenters at Board meetings so I get to hear first-hand about the effectiveness of its programs.”

Project Renewal Trustee Jules Ranz recognized for excellence in psychiatric training

The American Psychiatric Association awarded its 2013 Vestermark Award to Dr. Jules Ranz for outstanding contributions to the education and development of psychiatrists.  The award is jointly supported by APA and the National Institute of Mental Health.  Dr. Ranz was recognized for his excellence, leadership, and creativity in the field of psychiatric education.  He is the Director of the Public Psychiatry Fellowship at Columbia University Medical Center and has been a Project Renewal Trustee since 1995.

Project Renewal Holiday Potluck for Varick Street Staff

Varick Holiday Party 2012

Mark Thiry, Medical Department, and Martha Aguilar, Mental Health Department

Varick Holiday Party 2012

Erica Quan and Joice Knuckles, Fiscal Department

Varick Holiday Party 2012

Ann Paul, Administration

Varick Holiday Party 2012

Catherin Zellner, Fiscal Department, and Charles Allen, Operations

Varick Holiday Party 2012

From left to right: Gloria Viveros, Nava Kantor, Tanea Pugh, Alison Restak, and Molly O’Brien, Next Step Employment, and Kelsey Petrone, Development

Meet New Providence Women's Shelter

Meet some of the staff of New Providence Women’s Shelter, working tirelessly to keep homeless women with mental health and substance use issues fed, warm, safe, healthy and housed on their journey to permanent homes.

New Providence 004

Residential Aide Jamell Coach and Program Aide Supervisor John Brown

New Providence 038
New Providence 073

Roberto Muyet – Asst. Building Manager.

New Providence Women's Shelter

Rasheda Smith – MTC Senior Case Manager.

New Providence Women's Shelter

Deanna Emezue – MTC Case Manager

New Providence 111

Andrea Saunders – Housing Specialist

New Providence 112

Chenay Aziz – Entitlement Specialist.

New Providence 113

Assistant Director Lorraine Garcia and Program Aide Supervisor John Brown

New Providence Women's Shelter

Patrick Pierre – Clinical Director.

New Providence 140

Sam Govorcin  - Recreation Specialist

Give HOPE this Season: Help homeless men and women find a new life and reunite with their families

Harry Dickerson

Harry Dickerson was one of the homeless men you may have passed on the street.

“I remember there were times I would be on the train and I’d be so embarrassed because I was dirty. And I used to just look for a hole to crawl into.”

But when he reached bottom and decided to turn his life around, we were there for Harry because of gifts from people like you.“Project Renewal gave me a chance and stood next to me and they‘re still next to me.”  

Harry is one of thousands of once-homeless people who found ways to rebuild their lives through Project Renewal’s assistance with permanent housing, employment, overnight shelter, addiction treatment, and much, much more.

Next year thousands of homeless men and women will reach the same point that Harry did, mustering the courage to believe they can have more for their lives.

With your help we can be there for them like we were for Harry.

When Harry was only 11 years old, his mother suddenly died.  He and his brothers were alone.

They were forced to grow up too fast.  They had too few positive influences.  And sadly, his brothers couldn’t survive the streets … all three died young. 

By the time Harry turned to Project Renewal, he had already spent eight-and-a-half years in prison.  He was homeless and addicted to drugs.  

But he did not give up. In fact, Harry made it.  

Harry said, it’s not how you start out at the gate, it’s how you finishToday I’ve been in my apartment three years, I’m in my 5th year with the job I’m at, I’ve never worked anywhere for 5 years. My job is important to me, I’m doing something, I’m being productive not just to society but to me. By me being good to me, it rubs off on society.

Your gift today rubs off on society tomorrow. Please give generously and show New Yorkers like Harry that you believe they can do it.


Mitchell Netburn

President & CEO

P.S. There’s still time to make a tax-deductible gift for 2012. Thank you for helping a neighbor in need.

2012 Annual Report: Renewing Lives. Reclaiming Hope.

Our Annual Report has a new look! This is a great introduction to all that we do, and recaps all the achievements that your gift made possible last year. You also get to meet Harry Dickerson, an amazing man who has achieved so much through our programs.

Skip ahead to page 10 to learn more about the great plans coming up for 2012, and contact us to learn how you can be involved.

Gift a gift this holiday season and help homeless New Yorkers like Harry get back on their feet.

Order Holiday Wreaths and Centerpieces from Renewal Farm

Celebrate the Holidays with handcrafted decorations made by the men in the Renewal Farm Program.

All of the wreaths and arrangements are made with fresh evergreens and decorated with a combination of bows, clusters of pinecones and colorful holiday ornaments.

Click here for an order form

Please place orders and make payment at least one week in advance of the delivery date you select below.

Thursday, December 13th

Thursday, December 20th

Click here for an order form

Orders totaling over $75 per drop-off location will be delivered free to that location in NYC and Westchester. With your order you will also receive a Free I Support Renewal Farm Tote Bag.

Please pay by check made payable to Project Renewal-Farm.

E-mail your order to: david.harrington@projectrenewal.org or fax the order to: Renewal Farm (845) 335-1144


At the St. Christopher’s Inn That Nothing Be Lost Thrift Shop on Fridays from 10:00 AM to 3:00 PM  Starting Friday 12/7 ending Friday 12/21

Helping our Neighbors During Super Storm Sandy

Your support of Project Renewal enabled us to not only continue serving struggling New Yorkers already in our care, but to step up and help our neighbors when they needed it most.

100 Bed “Pop-up Shelter” at Ft. Washington helps displaced storm victims

By: Awilda Morton

On Monday, November 5th the Department of Homeless Services asked us to have 100 beds ready. DHS supplied cots, our maintanence team supplied linens and Comfort Foods provided the food. By the afternoon of Tuesday November 6th the shelter was open and ready for evacuees from shelters damaged by superstorm Sandy!

It went smoothly and the visiting clients used our cafeteria and common areas and we made caseworkers available to them. By Sunday everyone was able to return.

Economic Development Corporation

By: Fred Hornedo, Assistant Supervisor, Graffiti Removal

We were on standby for the storm and then after the storm hit we started to get phone calls from the people who were hit—Staten Island, Far Rockaway. We were just waiting for the word on whether they needed help. So they said get the trucks ready and fill them all up with fuel.The city mobilized the EDC teams to respond to the most devastated areas. Project Renewal had about 20-30 guys with 9 trucks plus supervisor vehicles.

When we got out there it was really bad—no power, no heat, water everywhere. It looked awful— like a disaster area.The residents had no power to run their pumps. By giving a hand we let people plug into the generators on our trucks out there with power strips plus extension cords running lines into people’s houses. Many people needed to use them to charge their cell phones so they could contact loved ones. We moved rubble, rubbish, and debris and pumped their houses. More people started coming later, but even arriving on Friday we were first responders—the National Guard, National Grid, Red Cross came later and started pitching in. But they still didn’t have power.

We gave a hand however we could with whatever we had. People had good spirits, they were happy to see us. But after the third or fourth day people were down with no power. If they had gotten power back sooner they would have been better off.

Seeing how bad it was, I didn’t realize it just from TV, it was heartbreaking. I would have run out there by myself if I had known how bad it was—I would have volunteered my time in a heartbeat. These were just regular people who didn’t ask for this.

Osmundo Robinson, Assistant Supervisor, Area Maintenance

Just devastating, shocking almost. I was speechless. People losing their houses, taking stuff out of their houses. We went out on Friday cleaning up debris that came out of the water, and we were out there two days. It was surpising, a lot worse than anyone expected. Where I live it didn’t hit that bad. But to see how it affected them was shocking. I passed by Breezy Point and it looked just like a garbage dump. We were some of the first people to show up—and that was Friday.

3rd Street Men’s Shelter

Barbara Hughes, Director, Comfort Foods and Culinary Arts Training Program

When the storm hit we were able to get the generator running immediately, which enabled us to keep the kitchens going. We opened up our doors to the neighborhood and served hundreds of extra meals, in addition to the clients staying at the shelter!

*Photo courtesy of drpavloff under Flickr Creative Commons

Gregory's Story

Gregory Gordan at PSTP

“I had a basketball scholarship but I lost interest when the drugs took over. I started talking to myself but I didn’t get diagnosed with schizophrenia until I was in prison, but you never know you’re sick until you go and ask somebody why am I doing this?

This is what I learned from Project Renewal—to open up and seek out other peoples advice. I said to Mr. Blocker I really need some structure in my life, doing things my way really didn’t work, so I had to try things someone else’s way. I think he picked me because he saw something in me that I didn’t see in myself, and that made me stronger, he said he knew I could do it, I stuck by what he asked me to do.

When the success started coming, I liked the feeling, being that I never thought that I would be successful again, being that I let so many people down. I started graduating from programs, completing everything that I had started. They (PSTP) just kept guiding me and staying on me. They were always there for me, I almost went backwards because I lost my wife to cancer in 2011, and they stood by me.

I have six kids, two live with me. I even rescued my daughter out of the shelter system. I took parenting classes. Now I work at Fairway but I want to go to school to become a therapist.”

Help more people like Gregory

Further into the Fray: Renewing New York City in 2013

According to the Annual Homeless Outreach Population Estimate (HOPE) Street Survey conducted by the Department of Homeless Services in January 2012, there were 3,262 unsheltered homeless individuals—a 23% increase from last year, and this is in addition to the 9,500 men and women in shelters on any given night.

So we will do more in 2013

  • Meet the increased demand for shelter by developing a new shelter for 108 mentally-ill men in the Bronx: renovation is underway and scheduled to open in 2013.
  • Meet the need for job training for homeless veterans by opening a satellite Culinary Arts Training Program to help 64 veterans annually learn cooking and work skills in a 6-month classroom and internship program.
  • Meet the needs of homeless veterans for jobs by adding more outreach and placement services. Veterans Employment and Training Services (VETS) provides intensive, one-on-one case management to address the complex problems facing homeless veterans.
  • Meet the need for supportive housing by developing a new residence for 56 homeless men and women struggling with substance abuse or mental illness. Studio apartments will add housing options for men and women now in shelters.
  • And continue innovating within the over 30 programs that help to end homelessness for 13,000 New Yorkers each year.

DONATE NOW to help ensure these veterans get the help they need in 2013!

Spotlight on Excellence: Wendell Evans, Case Manager, In Homes Now

As a Case Manager with In Homes Now, Wendell Evans always strives to provide clients with the highest level of care. Mr. Evans intuitively knows what clients need, defining the “client-centered approach” of Project Renewal’s mission. His innovations in services are expressed in both patient and intuitive interactions with clients—knowing where to find them, how to reach them, and what is needed to take them to the next step, as well as strategic know-how to creatively achieve the goals of the “Housing-First” ethos of the program.

Wendell is known for going “above and beyond,” connecting with clients despite scheduling conflicts, language barriers, and missed meetings. Through tailoring his work to each client’s needs, Wendell is able to reach clients who would otherwise resist help. He re-engaged a client who had abandoned his apartment to return to the streets, and that client is currently housed and committed to the program.

Wendell is “tremendous” at working with outside providers, his “experience in the substance abuse treatment field has left him with numerous contacts in various treatment programs” and allows him to make easy referrals.

In addition to his creative thinking, Wendell demonstrates a commitment to improving his own work. He grasps the complexity of the “housing-first” model and can apply his creative thinking to engineering new solutions that reach those hardest to serve.

20 Years On: Belinda Bernard is still providing hope for the hurting

As a student just graduating from Hunter College, Belinda Bernard was planning on staying 6 months at Project Renewal, 20 years later she is still with us and is dedicated to helping clients who struggle with mental illness.

“There is so much about human beings that we misunderstand and take for granted.” Belinda said. Her best days at work are when a client experiences a new insight; an accomplishment that takes them to the next level of their treatment and increases their awareness and independence.

Directing the Safe Haven Shelter is a new role for Belinda, following many years on the staff at Clinton Residence.

Since those first days moving from a student at Hunter to Project Renewal, the client population—those struggling with mental health issues—remains her focus.

“People are dealing with loss constantly, and we work to help them see that it isn’t over, there is hope. The sense of self that you lose when you are homeless can be regained and you can even plan for future goals.” She is enlivened by the steps her clients take in this direction. “One client, at 50, has just signed up for school. Others go to work for the first time in 30 or 40 years…this is an overlooked group of necessary people.”

She says that Project Renewal hasn’t changed all that much in her time here, “Just expanded, our core population has always stayed the same—to be of service to people who are in need, who otherwise couldn’t access those services.”

How unlikely Korean War leftovers found a home on September 11th

By: Ruth Antrich, Paralegal, Legal Department

The Boots

I started working at Project Renewal in 1998 for Ernie Talbot. One of my first ssignments was to sort out the storage facilities that we had at the time at the Brooklyn Army Terminal. There was a huge room, almost a block long, that was filled with boots, army boots from the Korean War probably. Ernie had brought them down from Camp LaGuardia, a former army base where Renewal Farm was located then. What to do with the boots, which were so heavy, by the way, that I could barely pick up one boot, let alone a pair at a time. I tried a few likely places but no takers.

Then September 11 happened. Like many of us, I was devastated and in a stupor, glued to the television in the days that followed. I watched reports of the responders and volunteers at staging grounds near Ground Zero, and each day they would announce “we need masks” and another day “we need wheelbarrows” and so on. Then on Sunday, I heard them say “we’re going to need boots.” Boots, they need, BOOTS! So I rushed to the office, grabbed a boot and went down to Ground Zero.

I was sent back up to the Javits Center where hundreds of volunteers were milling about waiting to be helpful. I finally found the person in charge of requisitions and showed him the boot and asked if he wanted more of these. YES! Right away, a convoy of vans, fi re trucks, vehicles and people made their way across the Brooklyn Bridge with me. This mini-army loaded every single last boot and cleared out the storage room completely. We finished at 3:00 am.

What an exhilarating feeling after days of feeling there was nothing I could do and no way to help. Even better, not only did the volunteers and responders get heavy-duty boots to plow through the ash and debris, but we got an empty storage room at last!

From the Archives: Project Renewal Remembers September 11th, 2011

From the Archives:

Memo From Ed Geffner to the

Board of Trustees

October 2, 2001

In the wake of the horrendous attacks New York City suffered three weeks ago, I wanted to let you know how Project Renewal was affected and what we did – and continue to do – to help.

Sadly, two employees, Richard Penny and Edwin Zambrana, who were part of our recycling team at the Towers, were lost on September 11th. We believe they were on the 102nd Floor doing their job when the tower was struck. Richard was a very private person and kept very much to himself. Eddie was a likeable young man who was crazy about basketball and just “good to be around.” We are assisting Eddie’s father in obtaining a death certificate and still trying to contact Richard’s roommate.

The other 18 members of the crew escaped although they were thoroughly traumatized by their experience. Fortunately, our WTC outreach team – two of whom were on duty at the time – made it out alive. All 7 team members have been placed in other PRI jobs as have the 18 recycling crew members. A near-miss was the team setting up the Renewal Farm produce table at the Farmer’s Market. The produce truck was obliterated, but the Renewal Farm workers escaped.

I hope you will share my pride in what PRI did to help. The day of the disaster, the MedVan’s Craig Simpkins and David Wood were at the Bowery Mission when the first plane hit. They drove the Van over to the site and immediately began working with an ambulance company, triaging victims who were then transported to area hospitals by ambulance. Mostly the injuries were related to getting debris out of people’s eyes and giving them oxygen. As the tower fell, they were told to leave the area and drove the van some 20 blocks north. After the 2nd tower fell, they were told to come back, but the MedVan couldn’t navigate the debris, so Craig and David returned to the site on foot and proceeded to spend the day helping triage the victims and offering medical help to the rescuers.

Our vans were dispatched to hospitals to transport medical staff to triage stations and take hospital patients home to free up beds for new patients. The outreach team – Elliot Rivera, Ivan Miller, Wendall Evans, Hector Rivera, and Norine Knowings – assisted by Francisco Hidalgo and the Medical Department’s invaluable Edwin Morales did the driving, a near-impossible task given all the street closings and debris. They continued to offer these services in the ensuing days, working long hours, day after day.

We opened up Kenton Hall as a relief station to the thousands of New Yorkers streaming up the Bowery from the site. There we provided hurting New Yorkers with water, masks, and wet towels, in addition to bathrooms, showers, phones, and beds. The incredible cooking staff, headed by Barbara Hughes, cooked dinner for 75 police at the 9th Precinct, in addition to its normal responsibilities.

And lastly, in a serendipitous piece of luck, we were able to donate some 1,500 pristine pairs of boots originally intended or the Marines fighting the Korean War which were left behind at Camp LaGuardia, now home to Renewal Farm.

We had been storing those boots for more than 10 years and they had become the bane of Ernie’s assistant Ruth Antrich’s existence. When she heard on Saturday night that boots were needed, she went to the rescuers to offer ours. The boots were delivered in time for the second big rainstorm and are currently being used by all manner of rescue personnel.

As you can see, the extraordinary staff of Project Renewal – like so many New Yorkers –went way beyond the call of duty following the horrors. I was, and am, tremendously proud to be associated with them.

Remembering Edwin (Eddie) Zambrana, Jr.

Edwin (Eddie) Zambrana, Jr., 24, had only been with the Project Renewal recycling program a short time before September 11th. That morning, he had friendly conversations with his co-workers. “See you at lunch,” he said to one of them as he boarded the elevator to the 88th fl oor of WTC Building 2.

When Eddie wasn’t working or helping to care for his sick mother, he enjoyed basketball. Not only did he teach children aged 6-18 basketball, but he even had a tryout with a professional team in Puerto Rico scheduled for March 2002.

Remembering Edwin (Eddie) Zambrana, Jr.

Richard (Richie) Penny, 53, had been with the recycling program for about three years before the World Trade Center tragedy. That day, because of his reliability and indefatigability, a Port Authority representative specially requested him to cover a “heavy” assignment: the 100th-90th floors of WTC Building 1.

Soft-spoken and diligent, Richie identified his love of learning as his best quality. Once the valedictorian of his high school class, Richie spent ten years on the streets and in shelters before another social service agency steered him to the Project Renewal recycling program.

Infections among homeless could fuel wider epidemics: study


Read this to better understand why our mobile medical vans work round the clock helping NYC’s homeless who suffer from infectious disease.

Turns out, it doesn’t just help them, it helps everyone! 

“Fazel said his findings suggested the best way to fight back against these and other infectious diseases was to focus on the homeless as one of the highest risk groups…

They found that in the United States, for example, TB rates were at least 46 times greater in the homeless than in the general population, and the prevalence of hepatitis C viral infection was more than four times higher…

“”Because … numbers of homeless people are high in some countries, improvements in care could have pronounced effects on public health,” he said.”

Chicago Tribune

Infections among homeless could fuel wider epidemics: study

August 19, 2012|By Kate Kelland | Reuters

LONDON (Reuters) - Homeless people across the world have dramatically higher rates of infection with tuberculosis (TB), HIV and hepatitis C and could fuel community epidemics that cost governments dear, a study showed on Monday.

With an estimated 650,000 homeless people in the United States and around 380,000 in Britain, experts said high levels of infection would not only cause yet more poverty and distress for those without homes, but could also become a wider problem.

“Infections in homeless people can lead to community infections and are associated with malnutrition, long periods of homelessness and high use of medical services,” said Seena Fazel, a senior research fellow in clinical science at the University of Oxford who led the study.

Fazel and his team analyzed more than 40 research papers on levels of HIV, hepatitis C and TB among homeless people from 1984 to 2012.

They found that in the United States, for example, TB rates were at least 46 times greater in the homeless than in the general population, and the prevalence of hepatitis C viral infection was more than four times higher.

In Britain, TB rates were about 34 times higher in homeless people than in the general population, and the prevalence of hepatitis C viral infection was nearly 50 times higher.

For HIV, rates of infection were typically between 1 and 20 times higher in homeless people in the United States than the general population, but no studies were found for Britain.

Fazel said his findings suggested the best way to fight back against these and other infectious diseases was to focus on the homeless as one of the highest risk groups.

“Because … numbers of homeless people are high in some countries, improvements in care could have pronounced effects on public health,” he said.

Fazel, whose study was published in The Lancet Infectious Diseases journal, said similar patterns were found in most other countries where data were available. Other countries covered in the study included France, India, Sweden, Ireland and Brazil.

According to United Nations estimates, about 100 million people worldwide are homeless. It is well known that rates of illness and premature death are particularly high in this group.

TB kills an estimated 1.4 million people annually, and about 9 million people are newly infected each year around the world.

Because it is a bacterial infection that spreads through the air in droplets when infected people cough and sneeze, it can develop into community outbreaks.

Anyone with active TB can easily infect another 10 to 15 people a year, and because successful treatment for TB requires months of antibiotics, patient care can be expensive.

In the United States, nearly 60,000 new cases of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) that causes AIDS are reported nationally every year.

The researchers said this research focused on HIV, Hepatitis C and TB because their initial work suggested these were the most heavily studied infections among homeless populations.

But they noted the homeless also have high rates of other infectious diseases, including hepatitis A and B, diphtheria, foot problems and skin infections.